De Bakker group – Imaging Human Development

DE BAKKER GROUP – USING STATE-OF-THE-ART IMAGING TECHNIQUES TO CAPTURE HUMAN EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT

“Our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is,
incidentally, the only teacher who is always right.”
– Victor Hamburger (1900-2001)

Contact: Bernadette S. de Bakker, MD PhD (b.s.debakker@amsterdamumc.nl)
Amsterdam UMC, Dept. Of Medical Biology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Vision

My life goal is to make human development easier to understand for clinicians, students and researchers worldwide, by using state-of-the-art 3D-imaging techniques. Being a medical doctor and scientist, I try to bridge the gap between fundamental research and clinical specialists. Creating an atlas based on histological sections of human embryos has made me realize that we know more about the moon then about our own development. Together with my collaborating scientists dr. Maurice van den Hoff and Prof. dr. Roelof-Jan Oostra and our enthusiastic team, we use cutting-edge 3D-imaging techniques to study human developmental anatomy. As I have a broad interest in embryonic development, forensic radiology, diving (medicine) and 3D-imaging I aim to combine my multidisciplinary skill-set to come up with out-of-the-box answers to research questions in each of these fields of study, and subsequently present and discuss my ideas during (international) conferences, meetings and courses.

– Bernadette de Bakker, MD PhD

  Assistant Professor in Human Embryology & Fetal Anatomy

Research overview

1. Research lines

1. Human Development

  • 3D Embryo Atlas
  • Dutch Fetal Biobank
  • 3D Fetal Atlas
  • 3D Ultrasound Atlas
  • AI in Fetal Ultrasound
  • Transcriptomics – 3D Gene Atlas
  • Fetal age estimation

2. Other research projects

  • Forensic Radiology
  • Diving Medicine
  • Spawning of coral reef invertebrates

2. Human Development

3D Embryo Atlas. As a PhD student, I created a unique working environment in which over 80 (bio)medical students aided in reconstructing up to 150 organs and structures in 34 human embryos from 15,000 historical histological sections. The manual segmentation of all organs and structures in these embryos took over 45,000 hours. The major outcome of this project – a complete 3D Atlas of Human Embryology – was published in Science and shows the development of all major organ systems in each embryonic stage from their first appearance onwards (www.3dembryoatlas.com). Alongside this atlas, we have published multiple scientific papers on organ formation, several book chapters as well as articles in the lay press, altogether revisiting the existing knowledge of our own development. Click here for the PhD thesis of Bernadette de Bakker.

Dutch Fetal Biobank. To gain access to human fetal specimens for our follow-up research, dr. Maurice van den Hoff and I started the Fetal Biobank donation program in 2017, which allows parents to donate their fetuses to science after termination or miscarriage. Our biobank currently holds over 170 human fetuses, and as we are expanding our field of work to a nation-wide initiative this number is only expected to grow. The constant supply of complete, fresh fetal specimens – in various stages of development – and the great efforts of our PhD students who are working day and night to collect the fetuses, enables us to study human development in an unprecedented way.

3D Fetal Atlas. The fetuses that are collected in the Dutch Fetal Biobank are used to create an interactive 3D atlas and database of human fetal anatomy that comprises the complete human morphological development from 10 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. With the use of the newest imaging modalities, e.g. ultra-high field MRI and micro-CT, and our state of the art staining protocols, we are able to visualize fetal development on a microscopic scale. Out of these visualizations and with the help of dozens of eager students, we are creating models of each and every organ system. Our future perspective is to use these 3D models – like the ones in the 3D Embryo Atlas – for educational, research and clinical purposes.

3D Ultrasound Atlas. As part of the PRECISE (Prospective Early Pregnancy Cardiac Imaging and Anatomy Screening) project, 3D ultrasound scans with Crystal Vue and Realistic Vue™ rendering software (WS80 Elite, Samsung Medison Ltd., Seoul, South Korea) on healthy pregnant women from 8 to 18 weeks gestation have been performed (Prof. dr. Tom Bourne & dr. Harsha Shah, Imperial College London). In the current project in collaboration with Dr. Maurice van den Hoff, this unique dataset of 3D ultrasound images is analyzed and annotated with the aim of creating a unique library of 3D ultrasonogaphy imagery. Anatomical structures visualized by these 3D ultrasound imaging techniques are cross-referenced with high-resolution imaging of age-matched post-mortem specimens obtained from the Dutch Fetal Biobank to create standardized reference material. Through the development of a complete 3D ultrasound atlas of fetal development, we aim to provide a practical benchmark for clinicians to facilitate the implementation of novel 3D ultrasound applications in their clinical practice.

AI in Fetal Ultrasound. Currently, 50% of all heart defects is missed on routine ultrasound screening. I envision a future in which smart ultrasound machines automatically detect irregularities that do not match anatomic normality based on Artificial Intelligence and datasets of healthy fetuses, so that sonographers can more accurately and objectively detect abnormalities.

Transcriptomics – 3D Gene Atlas. Together with dr. Maurice van den Hoff, we aim to create an interactive spatio-temporal gene expression atlas of human development of up to 24 weeks gestation. The transcriptomic data will be mapped onto the 3D Atlas of Human Development aiming as an additional interactive tool. The integrated data will be made publicly available to the scientific community so that cellular and molecular pathways can be further identified, the etiology of developmental disorders can be explored ultimately to advance the application of organoids and stem cells as testable model systems.

Fetal age estimation. Accurate estimation of fetal age is imperative for optimal maternal and prenatal care. An incorrect estimate of the fetal age can lead to erroneous labour induction, resulting in premature childbirth, or an increased risk of stillbirth. A pregnancy dating scan to define the exact gestational age based on the crown-rump length (CRL) of a fetus, and is normally performed around week 10-11 of the pregnancy. This method has proven much more accurate for gestational compared to using the last menstrual period as a temporal reference. There are, however, many plausible situations in which age determination in a later stage of the pregnancy becomes necessary, for instance when a deceased fetus is found in presumed cases of neonaticide or infanticide.

To improve mother-and-child care in clinical cases of nonstandard (e.g. trisomies, multifetal) or uncontrolled pregnancies and to improve age estimation in cases of neonaticide there is an urge to create a scientifically validated tool to adequately estimate fetal age over the entire course of the pregnancy.

3. Other research projects

Forensic Radiology. Together with my father, retired forensic radiologist dr. Henri de Bakker who successfully defended his PhD thesis in February 2019, and his successor Valerie Niehe, I manage the forensic radiology database of the Groene Hart Hospital and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. This annually growing forensic radiological database dates back to the year 2000 and comprises over 2500 cases. This unique resource enables data analysis in pre- and post-mortem cases and proved to be a useful source for retrospective research and scientific collaboration.

Diving Medicine. Being a registered Medical Examiner of Divers and diving instructor I am always keen to answer research questions related to diving medicine.1,2 Together with Prof. dr. Rob van Hulst, dr. Robert Weenink and the Ministry of Defence we are currently studying the behavior of gas bubbles in the neural circulation. 

  • de Bakker HM, Tijsterman M, de Bakker-Teunissen OJGB, Soerdjbalie-Maikoe V, van Hulst RA, de Bakker BS. Prevalence of pulmonary bullae and blebs in post-mortem computed tomography with potential implications for diving medicine. Chest. 2020 Apr;157(4):916-923. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2019.11.008.
  • de Bakker HM, Kubat B, Soerdjbalie-Maikoe V, Vester M, de Bakker OJGB, van Hulst RA, de Bakker BS. Massive gas embolisms in diving fatalities visualized by radiology and neuro pathology; Clin Neuropathol. 2020 Sep/Oct;39(5):221-226. doi: 10.5414/NP301258.

Spawning of coral reef invertebrates. In my spare time, I study the spawning synchrony of non-coral invertebrates in the Red Sea, together with marine biologists. The broadcast release of both sperm and eggs into the water column has proven a very effective form of reproduction. As the window of this event, which is usually only a few nights per year, is closely tied to factors as temperature variation, lunar rhythms and photoperiod length, it is difficult to predict when spawning will occur. We strive to collect as much data as possible on the spawning events of coral reef invertebrates in the Red Sea. By doing so, we hope to predict spawning events in the future and to collect and store sperm and eggs of endangered species to ensure biodiversity in the future.

  • AE Webb, AH Engelen, J Bouwmeester, Ivan Dijk, E Geerken, J Lattaud, D Engelen, BS de Bakker, DM de Bakker. Synchronized broadcast spawning by six invertebrates (Echinodermata and Mollusca) in the north-western Red Sea Marine Biology. Marine Biology. Accepted March 2021

3. International collaborations

Since the 3D Embryo Atlas was published,1 we have been involved in multiple fruitful international collaborations. We aided Prof. Riversade’s lab in Singapore by revisiting pancreatic development by creating Micro-CT and 3D ultrasound images of a human fetus with the rare Mitchell-Riley syndrome.2 Prof. Nathan Sniadecki’s group from the Department of Bioengineering of the University of Washington invited us to contribute to a review on cardiac development by providing 3D heart models3 and an email from Prof. Bourne’s group of Imperial College London resulted in a formal collaboration and embedding of a PhD student to verify their 3D ultrasound data by using our 3D embryological and fetal models (www.3dultrasoundatlas.com).4 Lastly, we got invited to write a ‘Point of View’ article for the journal Reproduction, concerning the exact location of fertilization.5 These collaborations prove that our work is internationally recognized and that we continue our quest to rewrite and present knowledge about human development in an understandable way.

  1. de Bakker BS, de Jong KH, Hagoort J, de Bree K, Besselink CT, de Kanter FE, Veldhuis T, Bais B, Schildmeijer R, Ruijter JM, Oostra RJ, Christoffels VM, Moorman AF. An interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and quantitative database of human development. 2016 Nov 25;354(6315). DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0053
  2. Trott J, Alpagu Y, Kim Tan E, Shboul M, Dawood Y, Elsy M, Wollmann H, Tano V, Bonnard C, Eng S, Narayanan G, Junnarkar S, Wearne S, Strutt J, Kumar A, Tomaz LB, Goy PA, Mzoughi S, Jennings R, Hagoort J, Eskin A, Lee H, Nelson SF, Al-Kazaleh F, El-Khateeb M, Fathallah R, Shah H, Goeke J, Langley SR, Guccione E, Hanley N, de Bakker BS, Reversade B, Dunn NR. Mitchell-Riley syndrome iPSC exhibit reduced pancreatic endoderm differentiation due to an RFX6 mutation; Development. 2020 Oct 8;dev.194878. DOI:1242/dev.194878
  3. Mandrycky CJ, Williams MP, Batalov I, El-Nachef D, de Bakker BS, Davis J, Kim D-H, DeForest CA, Zheng Y, Stevens KR, Sniadecki NJ. Engineering Heart Morphogenesis; Trends in Biotechnology. Accepted Jan 23, 2020. DOI: 1242/dev.194878
  4. Shah H, Al-Memar M, de Bakker B, Fourie H, Lees C, Bourne T. The first-trimester fetal central nervous system: a novel ultrasonographic perspective. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;217(2):220-221. DOI: 1016/j.ajog.2017.05.053
  5. Thunnissen LJW, Cleypool CGJ, de Bakker BS. Where do sperm and egg meet? Reproduction, 2021 Jan;161(1):V1-V4. DOI: 1530/REP-20-0375
Team
Dr. Bernadette de Bakker

Collaborating researchers

Dr. Maurice van den Hoff Prof. dr. Roelof-Jan Oostra


Ing. Jaco Hagoort (j.hagoort@amsterdamumc.nl)

I am a research technician and responsible for the image acquisition, modeling and visualization methods that we use in the 3D projects. I enjoy to find and apply new tools and techniques, to make medical and biological findings easier to understand. Traditionally we do this with images of histological serial sections, Amira software and 3D-PDFs. But by combining this with contrast enhanced micro-CT, smarter segmentation, online visualization and collaboration with students and experts, I think we are able to create a valuable and easy accessible source of knowledge.


Ing. Quinn Gunst (q.d.gunst@amsterdamumc.nl)

I am a research technician and I take care of the laboratory, making sure that I can help as many people as I can with their questions in research and discovering new techniques to be able to do so. I try to do this by acquiring different techniques and explaining this to others, this can range from a bachelor student to a post-doc in the field. This part is what I love about my job, explaining, helping and assisting people to reach their goals. Histology and Qpcr are the main fields where I am active in and I hope I will be able to do so for as long as possible.

PhD students


Yousif Dawood, MD (y.dawood@amsterdamumc.nl)

3D atlas of human fetal anatomy

During my PhD I am mainly focusing on the human fetal development. To do so, we use fetuses from the Dutch Fetal Biobank to create an interactive 3D atlas and database of human fetal anatomy that comprises the complete human morphological development from 10 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. With the use of the newest imaging modalities, e.g. ultra-high field MRI and micro-CT, and our state of the art staining protocols, we are able to visualize fetal development on microscopic scale. Out of these visualizations and with the help of tens of students, we are creating models of each and every organ system. Our future perspective is to use these models for educational, research and clinical purposes.


Marieke Buijtendijk, MD (m.f.buijtendijk@amsterdamumc.nl)

A 3D ultrasound atlas of fetal development

Congenital anomalies affect about 30 per 1000 live-born children and are a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Early detection of these conditions is vital, and can be achieved through ultrasound screening. However, only about half of all anomalies are currently detected. Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound provide a novel way of assessing fetal anatomy. Its use in clinical practice is limited through the lack of an appropriate reference.

In this study, we examine how fetal anatomy is visualized on 3D ultrasound imaging using novel volume rendering technologies. Healthy fetuses donated to science following termination of pregnancy are imaged consecutively by 3D ultrasonography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Using micro-CT imaging as a reference standard, we can validate the structures appearing on the rendered 3D ultrasound volumes. These datasets are then matched to previously obtained 3D ultrasound scans of healthy fetuses imaged in utero to test the applicability of our findings to the clinical situation. Through this project we will create a unique reference work on 3D ultrasonography and enhance our understanding of the potential of novel 3D ultrasound technologies for the assessment of fetal anatomy.


Hans Smit, MD (j.a.smit@amsterdamumc.nl)

Embryology, diagnosis and treatment of cleft lip and palate

Palatogenesis is a complex spatiotemporal process including development and fusion of the primary and secondary palatal shelves. The complexity of this process reflects the high incidence of cleft palates in humans (~1 : 2,500 live births). In 50% of cleft palate, the cause is non-syndromic. In these cases, etiology is complicated and not yet completely understood.

Increase of embryological knowledge is crucial in adequate cleft surgery. To facilitate understanding, we are adding a 3D reconstruction of palatogenesis in different Carnegie stages in addition to the already existing ‘3D Atlas of Human Embryology’. Our cleft chapter serves both educational and clinical purposes.


Matthijs Fockens, MD (m.m.fockens@amsterdamumc.nl)

Developmental aspects of laryngeal and tracheal anomalies

My research focuses on developmental and clinical aspects of laryngeal and tracheal anomalies. These anomalies generally present in neonates with respiratory complaints like stridor, dyspnea and cyanosis, and are accountable for morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of most laryngeal and tracheal anomalies are unknown, although the development of airway cartilage seems to play an important role.

Research topics include a descriptive analysis of normal tracheal cartilage development in human embryos, an evaluation of treatment modalities for airway obstruction caused by a third or fourth branchial pouch sinus, an assessment of a new surgical technique for aortopexy in tracheobronchomalacia, and a review of tracheal anomalies in Down syndrome children.


Malou Lugthart, MD (m.a.lugthart@amsterdamumc.nl)

Impact of prenatal screening: facing clinical challenges, improving counseling for our patients

Prenatal detection of fetal anomalies is considered to be an important goal of obstetric care and in many countries fetal ultrasound is now an established part of routine care. Routine screening and subsequent prenatal detection of fetal anomalies provides parents with the option to make autonomous reproductive choices. In this thesis, part I will address chromosomal anomalies, focusing on the prenatal detection and management of triploidy and describing the survival of trisomy 13 and 18. Part II will address structural anomalies in first and mid-trimester pregnancy: is there a reason for referral in case of an increased nuchal translucency before 11 weeks of gestation? And what is the impact of the first trimester scan on prenatal detection of structural anomalies and in particular congenital heart disease.


Valérie Niehe, MD (valerie.niehe@ghz.nl)

Forensic perinatal and pediatric radiology

Topics:

  • Fetal age estimation: which method should be used in the forensic radiologic setting?

Systematic literature review, set up a guideline for the estimation of fetal age in a forensic setting, is it feasible to make an (open source) tool for the estimation of fetal age?

  • Use of micro-CT in the perinatal and pediatric forensic setting.

Systematic literature review. Use of micro-CT in the setting of perinatal and pediatric radiology?

  • Case study of neonaticides. Is it possible to determine if a fetus has lived after birth using total body CT? How reliable are radiologic signs for the determination if a fetus has lived after birth (e.g. air in lungs, trachea, bronchial tree, gastrointestinal tract)? Comparison to autopsy findings.
  • Prospective study of value of MRI in addition to CT and skeletal survey of children up to the age of 2 years in a forensic setting. Neuro / body radiology.

 

Özlem Engin, MD (o.engin@amsterdamumc.nl)

Surgical anatomy of the orbital apex

My research focusses on the anatomy of the orbital apex. We recently published a systematic review about the currently known anatomy. Now we will study the surgical anatomy of the orbital apex with a micro CT-scan. Hereafter we will study the Annulus of Zinn and it’s relationship with the optic nerve, the its precise location. After this we will look into the surgical anatomy from the supero- lateral surgical corridor to the orbital apex and skull base, using both an external approach and trans- orbital endoscopic approach. We will re-evaluate the orbital fibrous septae described by Prof. dr. Leo Koornneef and finally describe the orbital septae in the apex.

Wall of Fame of Former PhD students

 

Dr. Henri M. de Bakker

Forensic Radiology in the Netherlands

Publications

Click here for an updated list of all PubMed indexed references.

Additional publications

  • Soerdjbalie V, de Bakker BS, de Bakker HM. Symbiotische samenwerking tussen patholoog en radioloog; 2020 Sept;25(3):7-8.
  • de Bakker HM, Tijsterman M, de Bakker-Teunissen OJGB, Soerdjbalie-Maikoe V, van Hulst RA, de Bakker BS. Prevalentie van bullae en blebs bij post-mortem CT. Implicaties voor duikgeneeskunde?; 2020 Sept;25(3):12-17.
  • Sonnemans L, Dawood Y, Klein W, de Bakker BS. Postmortale beeldvorming van foetussen; 2020 Sept;25(3):30-35.
  • de Bakker HM, Oltshoorn PC, Soerdjbalie-Makoe V, de Bakker BS. The most accurate postmortem radiological imaging method to evaluate suspected neck violence; Forensic Imaging Accepted March 31, 2020
  • de Bakker HM, de Bakker BS. Forensic radiology in the Netherlands: a personal perspective. Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. Volume 9, June 2017, 56–58.
  • de Bakker HM, Soerdjbalie-Maikoe V, Kubat B, Maes A, de Bakker BS. Forensic imaging in legal medicine in the Netherlands: Retrospective analysis of over 1700 cases in 15 years’ experience. Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. Sept 2016, Volume 6, 1–7.
  • de Bakker BS, Soerdjbalie-Maikoe V, de Bakker HM. The use of 3D-CT in weapon caused impression fractures of the skull, from a forensic radiological point of view. Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, Oct 2013;1(4):176–179.

Book chapters

  • DeRuiter, MC, Kleinrensink, G & de Bakker, BS (2019). Anatomy of the female pelvis, pelvic organs & reproductive system. In: EAP Steegers e.a. (red). Textbook of obstetrics and gynaecology. A life course approach. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
  • Ganzevoort, W, Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, AG, Painter, RC, Steegers-Theunissen, RPM, & De Bakker, BS (2019). Embryonic & fetal growth and development. In: EAP Steegers e.a. (red). Textbook of obstetrics and gynaecology. A life course approach. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.

Cover images

 

Dutch Fetal Biobank

Since 2017, parents can donate a fetus to science after termination of pregnancy, an ectopic pregnancy or immature labor below 24 weeks of gestation (the limit of viability). This biobank at Amsterdam UMC, (location AMC) is treated with the greatest care, respect and anonymity. When parents have decided to terminate their pregnancy, their wishes for the destination of the body of the fetus after birth are discussed by their obstetrician or midwife. In hospitals that are affiliated to the fetal biobank, parents are given the option to donate the fetus to science, in addition to the standard options of taking the fetus home for a private burial or cremation, or collective cremation organized by the hospital. When parents decide to donate their fetus to science after birth, procedures during the labor and birth are as usual. After the birth, parents can take all the time they need to say goodbye. When they have given their permission for the fetus to be collected, a member of the biobank will be alerted and the fetus will be transported to the biobank as soon as possible (24/7). Once parents have donated the fetus, the fetus can no longer be traced back to the parents, as such anonymity is guaranteed.

After researchers from the biobank have collected the fetus, it will be scanned using 3D ultrasound, 7 Tesla MRI or Micro-CT to study the anatomy of organs and to validate new ultrasound screening software. Subsequently, samples that are useful for DNA, RNA and protein studies are taken from all organs. Brain tissue is stored in the national Netherlands Brain Bank. Using the fetal tissues, researchers within our group investigate gene expression pathways and how the various organs develop. This increases our understanding of normal growth as well as how birth defects might occur.

When parents wish to donate a fetus that died after 24 weeks of gestation to science, can do so through the body donation program.

For questions concerning the fetal biobank please email at foetale.biobank@amsterdamumc.nl.

Lead scientists

Dr. Bernadette de Bakker
Dr. Maurice van den Hoff

Affiliated hospitals

Amsterdam UMC, location AMC
OLVG (East en West)
Spaarne Gasthuis (Hoofddorp & Haarlem)
Rode Kruis Ziekenhuis
Zaans Medisch Centrum
Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep (Alkmaar & Den Helder)
Flevoziekenhuis
Tergooi Ziekenhuis
Erasmus MC

External links

Amsterdam Reproduction & Development (AR&D)

3D Embryo Atlas

3D Ultrasound Atlas

PhD Thesis: 3D Atlas of Human Embryology – New insights in human development

Outreach and publicity

The societal impact of our work is evident from the fact that multiple international media platforms have featured our work including the BBC, CNN, Fox news, The New York Times, The Guardian, NRC and Het Parool. Just recently, our discovery of a new salivary gland (Valstar, de Bakker et al.Oct.2020) went viral. We have published several articles in scientific layman’s journals like ‘Hoe bouw je een baby’ KIJK(2019);10:24-29, contributed to the latest exhibition HUMANIA of NEMO Science Museum in Amsterdam (21-11-2019) and have acted in a documentary by Medialogica(NPO2) – De beeldenstorm rond abortus – (08-12-2019).

Teaching

I work as lecturer in the Section Clinical Anatomy & Embryology of the dept. of Medical Biology. We teach human anatomy and embryology to bachelor, master and post-doctoral students for multiple faculties of the University of Amsterdam. My current research portfolio encompasses the following courses.

Coordinator:

  • Forensic Medicine – Faculty of Medicine, University of Amsterdam (18 EC)
  • Anatomy & Developmental Biology – Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam (12 EC)

Other courses I am currently enrolled in:

  • Shaping in a Human, track Developmental & Therapeutic Biology, master Biomedical Scienses, Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam
  • Human Body II, Bachelor Amsterdam University College, Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam
  • 3D Atlas of Human Fetal Anatomy elective course, Faculty of Medicine, University of Amsterdam
  • RA-1 (Regulation and Immunity 1), Faculty of Medicine, University of Amsterdam
  • RA-3 (Regulation and Immunity 3), Faculty of Medicine, University of Amsterdam
  • General and Applied Embryology – Faculty of Medicine UMC Utrecht, University of Utrecht
  • Minor Challenges in Womens and Child Healthcare, Faculty of Medicine, VU University
  • Surgical Anatomy for surgeons in training – Amsterdam UMC
  • Gynecological Anatomy for gynecologists in training – Amsterdam UMC
  • Basic course prenatal ultrasound, EchoXpert academy Amsterdam

Supervising:

I have supervised 133 students (as per January 2021) through various individual internships. Check the TEAM page to find out about the PhD students I currently supervise.

Funding/awards

Funding

Funding for our research was kindly provided by the following organizations:

  • The Board of Directors of the Amsterdam UMC
  • Amsterdam Reproduction & Development (AR&D)
  • De Snoo-van ’t Hoogerhuijs Foundation
  • Innovation Exchange Amsterdam (IXA)
  • Samsung Healthcare

Awards, Prizes and Grants

  • Amsterdam UMC Innovation impuls: Augmented Reality for education about cleft lips and palates (2021)
  • AR&D The Bigger Picture Grant (2020)
  • AR&D In Between Grant (2020)
  • The AMC Best PhD Thesis Award (2019)
  • Amsterdam Science & Innovation award (2019)
  • Young investigator award by De Snoo-van ‘t Hoogerhuijs foundation (2019)
  • IXA and Samsung: An atlas of 3D ultrasound images of human development (2018)
  • AR&D Out-of-the-Box grant (2018)
  • Out-of-the-box grant Cardiovascular Sciences (2018)
  • Best Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences Publication Award (2017)
  • AMC Graduate School Best PhD Publication Award (2017)
  • AMC Graduate School PhD Scholarship for Yousif Dawood (2017)
  • AMC Grassroot (2017)
  • AMC Profile prize 3D Atlas Team (2017)
  • AMC Innovation impuls: ACRA: an anatomic-radiological skills lab (2016)
  • IPS-project Amsterdam University Fund; Serious gaming (2015)
  • American Association for Anatomy travel award (2014)
  • Bolk Award of the Dutch Anatomical Association (2013)
  • American Association for Anatomy Visiting Scholarship (2013)
  • American Association for Anatomy travel award (2013)
  • IXA Proof of concept funding for the development of the 3D Atlas Application (2012)
  • American Association for Anatomy travel award (2012)
  • Spinoza funding of the University of Amsterdam (2011)
  • AMC Best Honours Student Presentation Award (2009)